|Police Checkpoint on Ashura Holiday in Kabul, Afghanistan|
Wars have never had simple, neat, clean endings. We like to envision that they have, but after the signature of nearly every historical treaty there remain scattered battles and acts of aggression by those who refuse to accept defeat or had yet to hear the news. Today, the lingering aftermath of war is more obvious, as it is a given that wars never end but continue to trickle onward indefinitely. Cities such as Kabul, Juba, Mogadishu, and Bagdad are rebuilding, but are not safe or stable.
There are many reasons for their continued instability and lots of research out there to understand why contemporary wars have no ending. Current research as investigated the problem from diverse perspectives such as psychology, natural resources, epidemiology, or even the notion that conflict simply creates more conflict. But amidst all the efforts there has been little to no examination of the physical city and its role in promoting or reducing conflict.
Unfortunately traditional methods of security greatly undermine the health and function of cities. Giant blast walls, police and military checkpoints, and steel guard shacks hinder processes socio-economic and cultural production by disrupting the spatial pathways and linkages necessary for their distribution and replication.
Here are some examples of how contemporary security will hinder post-conflict urban reconstruction:
- Detours caused by road blocks force the redistribution and retarded delivery of capital causing unnecessary losses and social inequities. For example, the guy who collects and sells firewood must pull his heavy cart an excessive extra distance before getting to his customer base, or because he cannot access his customers, he must compete against another firewood salesman in a more accessible neighborhood, reducing profits and potentially causing territorial conflict.
- Lack of identification among citizens and the frequency of police checkpoints disrupts the flow of goods and people, and further causes new touchpoints for conflict occur. In developing countries, most people do not have a birth certificate let alone a license or photo identification. Just as often the police are illiterate and after long work hours are impatient and tired. While checkpoints are important for security, they also create points of friction in the community and can inspire new conflicts.
- Most neighborhoods were founded and grew around tightly defined tribal identities. Over time these tribal concepts began to deconstruct, yet the emergence of social conflict will re-inspire tribal allegiances When communities are heavily segregated by tribe, cross-tribal interaction is more likely to motivate suspicion and hostility than friendship and commerce. When physical barricades disrupt the movement of people, it prevents opportunities to again break down tribal allegiances.
|Blast walls dictate all movement and transport cooridors in Kabul |
As you see, point of security are also points of disruption and thus obfuscate healthy social interaction. The question then becomes, how can governments and institutions create a viable security infrastructure while also promoting the advancement of the city?
To solve this problem, we must imagine some future possibilities:
- What if police checkpoints could be design and operated in such a way that 10 years from now, citizens would say "remember when we had that checkpoint? I rather miss it, that really added something to our community."
- What if security infrastructure, such as blast walls or Jersey-walls, were created in such a way that their identity could become absorbed into the the landscape over time?
- What if urban security was approached as a process of customer service, and thus techniques successful in retail could be infused within security operations? To extent we already have this, but does a visit to the police station feel like a visit to the genius bar? Do customers have a way to provide feedback into the service experience for improvement? Most people are afraid of security providers, how can this be changed?
Unfortunately those with the power to initiate and conduct war continue to forget the lessons forged by existing conflicts. Take for example the swift path to victory by the French forces in Mali. Achieving the military victory was possible, but before the militants moved in, Northern Mali was a poor and desperate landscape. Will it return to the same sad state of affairs? Likely, or even more likely, it will be worse as France appears to have no viable plan for the reconstruction process. And if they rely upon the methods currently embraced by the aid/development community of the world, they wil only partly succeed, as evidenced by the lackluster reconstruction in Afghanistan.
Certainly the communities are resilient to certain issues and people will manage to survive, but resilience does nothing to prompt the radical transformation for a sustained peace and enriched development. It is clear that a new approach is necessary, one that transforms the landscape so as to negate the conditions which facilitate conflict. For years my company Sutika Sipus has been developing strategies and solutions to facilitate this change, but one company is not enough, others must take part in the process as well. We need to reinvent the interface between security and society in our cities, and to do so, it is essential that we redesign the relationship between security methods and the city itself.
|Karte-Seh. Kabul Afghanistan. Sutika-Sipus 2013|