Kabul's Rigorous Allegiance to Master Plans
|Kabul Playground at Camp Julian (Photo: Sutika Sipus 2012)|
While preparing to return to Mogadishu in June to further reconstruction efforts, I also have a few planning related obligations in Kabul Afghanistan. One of which it a weekly training session with members of the city administration in a USAID funded project for capacity building. Although my colleagues work daily, I visit the program each week to provide teaching on urban planning and to develop a curriculum for guided problem solving activities. The class participants are city engineers, district managers, and other mid-level administration.
|Kabul, Afghanistan 2001 Formal and Informal Housing [green]|
vs. 2006 Informal Housing [purple] (Map: Sutika Sipus 2012)
I had read previously in a dissertation on Kabul City Planning by Pietro Calgero that the Kabul municipality has historically maintained a strict adherence to a top-down rational planning model. Yet only last night did I realize the rigidity of this truth.
In an attempt to overview various models of participatory planning, simply as a means to expose the trainees to planning methods in other countries and cultures for comparison, I found myself confronted resolute objections.
In the words of one engineer in attendance "we know where to build the roads because they are in the master plan, then we go to the community and say we are building a road here, you will need to move. Then the problem is finished." When I asked about policies regarding informal housing, the response was equally severe. The attitude was that people who live outside the terms of the master plan have to right to the land and therefore must leave if told to do so.
In Kabul, informal housing is a pressing issue, and while strides have been made to recognize the claims of informal occupants, the top-town approach dominates. I was surprised to discover the severe attitudes among many of the trainees, whose allegiance to the city Master Plan could not be shaken. As a planner who has little faith in the utility of master plans among developing economies, I sought some degree of common ground between the trainees. Not to mention, the city is again working on a NEW master plan! Like most master plans, it has taken years to assemble, and by the time it is ready for implementation, it will likely be out of date and irrelevant. Perhaps not, but I'm skeptical.
By the end of the session, I found an opportunity when an architect in attendance noted that she frequently needs to negotiate with community members. Negotiation isn't nearly equivalent to any community-based or decentralized planning models I'm familiar with, but it is a step in the right direction. Over the next week the participants are to think of strategies in which these negotiation processes may take place. I look forward to their ideas. Will they surprise me again? Probably.
|The Kabul Neighborhood of Karte Seh (Photo: Sutika Sipus 2012)|