In the previous post I gave a brief overview of how Stuxnet worked and discussed some of the perils Urban Planners face within complex conditions, notably within conflict. Below is a closer look at how Stuxnet can apply to urban planning.
Stuxnet and Urban Planning
- Too often development plans are developed and executed while overly reliant on contingent variables to maintain their integrity. If Part A occurs properly, Part B will go into effect... yet if Part A doesn't happen, the project is at risk of failure. This is partly the fault of the discipline of Urban Planning and its tradition of creating"Master Plans," long term projections into the future with a constant effort to fine tune socio-economic conditions in space. Yet as the conditions constantly change and the implementation of Part A will have unforeseen effects elsewhere in the urban space, master plans are rarely equipped to meet the changing demands of the urban environment and are doomed to fail.
2. Stuxnet not only penetrated multiple systems, it provided opportunities to change in response to those systems. The code maintained a series of entry points in the event that the present layer of the 'russian doll' doesn't quite fit the conditions.
- Markets do not exist in an equilibrium, neither do the less tangible social forces, therefore it is essential that plans are designed and implemented as fluid enterprises. Rather than craft a plan that is project-oriented, consider how projects function as a larger process, and thus changes and tweaks are determined in terms of maintaining momentum with the process, not within the operations of a single project. In other words, to craft a successful small project, consider it at a regional scale. Evaluation of the project and suggestions to change are best designed in terms of regional necessity, not at the smaller scale of 'project success.'
- Planners in conflict need to visualize human settlements as 4-dimensional and not as static compositions. The traditional overhead map will only provide a fraction of the information necessary. If the problem is defined by conflict between two social groups, situate these groups in a space, and visualize their interactions within that space over periods of time. The environment will inform the actions of those groups. Over time the environment and the groups will influence each other and thus create a new set of conditions. The problem will again change once an intervention is introduced.
- This doesn't exclusively apply to conflict cities. If one were to count the bus stops on a street then count their occupancy at different times of day, and each day of the week, a succinct pattern would emerge. Introducing a new transportation option would change this pattern. Yet before a new option can be introduced, such as alternative transport, additional buses, or an alternative route, the pattern must be first determined in terms of space and time and a variety of research methods may be used to acquire this information.
4. Spend less time attempting to building sectors and invest more time into the linkages. Embedded within Stuxnet were three different layers of code to exploit three different situations. It used the connections between Windows OS to Siemens and then to PLC. Its primary set of tools took action at the final stage.
- Likewise the function and productivity of any sector is only as strong as the transition point from one sector to another. Rather than devoting hours to the study of transportation and a separate study on economic markets, condense efforts to understand how markets flow and interact based on available transit corridors.
5. Identify target indicators within those linkages, but these indicators must also be 4-dimensional.
- To continue the above example, a rapid observation of wheel thickness among vehicles will tell you the condition of roads, the distance between production and supply points, the amount of wealth generated within processes of exchange and the frequency of exchange. The better the conditions of all circumstances, the thinner, lighter, and newer the tires on bicycles and cars. This single indicator can inform the health of sector linkages and simultaneously communicate the health of individual sectors. It should be noted that the indicator itself may actually serve as an ideal point of intervention.
6 Stuxnet simultaneosly spread through multiple networks so that points of failure were inconsequential. While the mechanisms of the intervention may be complex, the linkages need not be. If an intervention is crafted upon a continuous series of dependent variables, it will not succeed. If an intervention directly impacts multi-sectoral linkages and multiple locations at different points in time, it will have a higher probability of success. It may require fine tuning in some locations or at some points in time, but such changes need only be subtle and responsive.
The greatest difficulty of behind planning an urban intervention while utilizing the Stuxnet approach is the challenge of measuring the impact of the plan. Stuxnet was designed to relay information back to some website databases, yet working in a community does not provide the same immediate information supply. Rather one can only measure the impact of the project by assessing the actual problem at hand, such as fluctuations in conflict, market stabilization, transportation flows, and the production of goods. The problem emerges when specifying causality, specifically connecting the value of the project to the mitigation of the urban problem. Certainly it can be done, but it will require creative thinking. After all, if one simply continues to add more layers of indicators, markers, measurements, links, etc. to the production cycle, the project will lose its streamlined sophistication and become too self-burdened to operate efficiently.